Alvarez C, Garcia JE, & Lopez MA (1989) Exocrine pancreas in rabbits fed a copper-deficient diet: Structural and functional studies. High levels of dietary zinc have been also been shown to interfere with the metabolism of calcium and to increase total calcium and concentrations of calcium in the liver, but to decrease these levels in the body of exposed fetuses (Cox et al., 1969). Cossack ZT (1986) Somatomedin-C and zinc status in rats as affected by Zn, protein and food intake. Full text of "The history of birds : their varieties and oddities, comprising graphic descriptions of nearly all known species of birds, with fishes and insects, the world over, and illustrating their varied habits, modes of life, and distinguishing peculiarities by means of delightful anecdotes and spirited engravings" See other formats Reader JP, Everall NC, Sayer MDJ, & Morris R (1989) The effects of eight trace metals in acid soft water on survival, mineral uptake and skeletal calcium deposition in yolk-sac fry of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. J Fish Biol, 35: 187–198. Moreover, soils are frequently contaminated by a mixture of metals. (1989) reported that hepatic levels and metallothionein in perch (Perca fluviatilis) caught downstream from a brass works in Sweden reflected the water concentration of zinc (0.56–59 µg/litre). J Nutr, 70: 514–520. J Nutr, 81: 312- 320. For example, serum copper or zinc levels were not affected in healthy infants who were fed a zinc-sufficient diet supplemented with 30 mg of iron as ferrous fumarate daily given 30 min before a meal (Yip et al., 1985). Ruz M, Cavan KR, Bettger WJ, & Gibson RS (1992) Erythrocytes, erythrocyte membranes, neutrophils and platelets as biopsy materials for the assessment of zinc status in humans. For humans, the most important route of exposure to zinc is through the ingestion of food. The homeostatic model defines the principle of an acceptable range of exposures for an essential trace element like zinc. The physiological and metabolic responses of test plants can be considered as a biological criterion for the total phytotoxic effect, since they are the result of the interactions of the metals present in the soil with other soil factors (biotic or abiotic) and with the plant. White SL & Rainbow PS (1985) On the metabolic requirements for copper and zinc in molluscs and crustaceans. Vranken G, Tiré C, & Heip C (1988) The toxicity of paired metal mixtures to the nematode Monhystera disjuncta (Bastian, 1865). H   Nevertheless, in persons with severe zinc deficiency, serum/plasma zinc concentrations are usually low (Arakawa et al., 1976; Hess et al., 1977; Prasad et al., 1978a; Gordon et al., 1982; Baer & King, 1984). Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 10(5): 291- 294. Significant reductions in cocoon production were observed at zinc carbonate and sulfate concentrations of 500 mg/kg dw. J Am Coll Toxicol, 8(7): 1285–1290. Plasma zinc increased to a plateau at levels about 1.5- 2 times those in controls within the first 30 days. The integration of environmental chemistry and toxicology has allowed a better prediction of the effects of metals on organisms in the environment. (1980) calculated a 10-day LC50 for zinc for the midge Tanytarsus dissimilis reared in unfiltered Lake Superior water (background zinc concentration 5.1 µg/litre) to be 0.037 mg/litre. Additionally, a markedly zinc-deficient diet in rats produced a significant reduction in the total pancreatic content of zinc within 2 days and was associated with a more than 50% reduction in the activity of gamma-glutamyl hydrolase (an indicator of pancreatic activity) in pancreatic tissue (Canton & Cremin, 1990). I got about 4 hrs sleep on the plane and am beginning to feel sort of dopy. Canada/EU (1996) Draft report: Technical Workshop on Biodegradation/Persistence and Bioaccumulation/Biomagnification of Metals and Metal Compounds. Since those first reports, mild zinc deficiency has been reported in infants and younger children living both in developing and in industrialized countries. UBA (Umweltbundesamt) ed. In the late follow-up group, the four participants with the highest cumulative exposures (> 3.5 g/min per m3) all had myalgia. Sotas handed the goose to Apicius, who brought it toward the priest waiting next to the altar. Voroshilin SI, Platko EG, Fink T, & Nikiforova VJA (1978) Cytogenetic effects of inorganic and acetate compounds of tungsten, zinc, cadmium and cobalt in animal and human cells. No data are presented for marine and estuarine species. Greathouse DG & Osborne RH (1980) Preliminary report on nationwide study of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases. The 3-week LC50 was 0.16 mg/litre; the 3-week EC50, based on reproductive impairment, was 0.10 mg/litre. After ingestion, zinc in humans is initially transported to the liver and then distributed throughout the body (Aamodt et al., 1979). (1983) conducted in situ experiments in Lake Michigan (background zinc concentration ~ 1 µg/litre) to determine the responses of the plankton community to added zinc for 2 weeks. In rats fed zinc-deficient diets, about 50% of epididymal spermatozoa had a significant decrease in resistance to DNA denaturation in situ. Newer approaches for consideration might include the use of zinc kinetics as related to function, or the identification of enzymes that are dependent on zinc and whose changes reflect zinc status as it relates to function. Anal Chim Acta, 149: 59-66. Hunt JW & Anderson BS (1989) Sublethal effects of zinc and municipal effluents on larvae of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens. directions), Coffee mix,flavored,with sugar (prepared according to package Los efectos tóxicos del zinc para los roedores tras una exposición breve por vía oral incluyen debilidad, anorexia, anemia, disminución del crecimiento, pérdida de pelo y una utilización menor de los alimentos, así como cambios en las concentraciones de las enzimas del hígado y el suero, cambios morfológicos y enzimáticos en el cerebro y cambios histológicos y funcionales en el riñón. Energy, nutrient and antinutrient intakes can be calculated from the quantitative food consumption data using food composition tables or a nutrient data bank. 8th ed. Beer WH, Johnson RF, Guentzel MN, Lozano J, Henderson GI, & Schenker S (1992) Human placental transfer of zinc: normal characteristics and role of ethanol. Ottawa, International Council on Metals and the Environment. Similarly, the zinc-content of zinc-efficient plants may be insufficient for optimum performance of herbivorous animals and humana, especially if all the cellular zinc is present in a form which is not readily bioavailable. In another study, reduced tissue iron and copper levels in weanling rats and reductions in calcium and phosphorus deposition in bones of young rats were observed following feeding with excess zinc (Sadasivan, 1951). Determining factors can be summarized as follows (Kiekens, 1995): Highly leached acid soils may have low zinc levels. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 1867–1875. Henry & Harrison (1992) studied the uptake of metals by turfgrass, tomatoes, lettuce and carrots grown in different soils (control soil, soil amended with NPK fertilizer, compost, and a 1:1 soil-compost mixture). The concentration of extractable zinc increased rapidly at pH values below a threshold of 6.2–7.0, with less being extracted from the clay soil than from the sandy soils. Many of the older test results should be regarded with caution because the assays were carried out in culture media containing complexing agents like EDTA, which could affect the bioavailability of zinc. Based on the available information, it is not possible to define a no-effect level for pulmonary inflammation from exposure to zinc oxide fume. When seven pregnant women with low serum zinc levels (< 11.5 µmol/litre) were given a zinc supplement of 90 mg/day for the last 13–25 weeks of pregnancy, no adverse effects were associated with the supplementation (Jameson, 1976). Porter KG, McMaster D, Elmes ME, & Love AHG (1977) Anemia and low serum copper during zinc therapy. 7). The values do not include the background zinc concentration of 17.7 µg/litre. Am J Clin Nutr, 57: 334–343. J Nutr, 117: 1913–1923. Buzina R, Jusic M, Sapunar J, & Milanovic N (1980). Urban runoff, mine drainage and municipal and industrial effluents can also make a considerable contribution to the zinc load of surface water (US EPA, 1980). A cross-sectional analysis, conducted on spirometric lung-function parameters in zinc welders, non-welders with exposure to welding fumes and control subjects (Marquart et al., 1989), revealed no differences in lung function between groups, and changes in lung function over five consecutive work shifts were not related to the exposure level. J Geochem Explor, 52: 221–229. Hill GM, Brewer GJ, Prasad AS, Hydrick CR, & Hartmann DE (1987) Treatment of Wilson’s disease with zinc. Zinc concentrations in the liver, kidneys and pancreas increased in direct proportion to the zinc content of the diet. Information concerning zinc deficiency in aquatic organisms must thus be obtained primarily from laboratory experiments. Can J Bot, 56: 1744–1749. Stauber JL & Florence TM (1989) The effect of culture medium on metal toxicity to the marine diatom Nitzschia closterium and the freshwater green alga Chlorella pyrenoidosa. Tomasik P, Magadza CHD, Mhizha S, & Chirume A (1995) The metal-metal interactions in biological systems. In the case of zinc, the BCF is not useful for relating uptake to adverse effects, because it does not consider physiological parameters (Canada/EU, 1996; Chapman et al., 1996). J Exper Bot, 28(105): 1029–1036. Ces symptômes étaient réversibles puisqu'ils ont disparu lorsque l'eau a été filtrée sur charbon actif. (5 male, 6 female) Four pups from each litter were killed at birth and the remaining pups were killed and examined on day 14 of lactation. Bourg ACM & Darmendrail D (1992) Effect of dissolved organic matter and pH on the migration of zinc through river bank sediments. It should be noted that background zinc concentrations were less than 1 µg/litre in the second experiment. Water Res, 15(3) 301–319. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med, 104: 304–306. La naturaleza esencial del zinc, junto con su toxicidad relativamente baja para el ser humano y las fuentes limitadas de exposición humana, parecen indicar que las personas normales sanas no expuestas al zinc en el lugar de trabajo tienen potencialmente un riesgo de sufrir los efectos adversos asociados con la deficiencia de zinc superior al que acompaña a una exposición normal al zinc en el medio ambiente. Spear PA (1981) Zinc in the aquatic environment: chemistry, distribution, and toxicology. Prominent among these effects were decreased plasma encephalins and dyslipidaemia characterized by decreased HDL cholesterol and increased LDL cholesterol. Stuart GW, Searle PF, & Palmiter RD (1985) Identification of multiple metal regulatory elements in mouse metallothionein-I promoter by assaying synthetic sequences. Geneva, World Health Organization, pp 32–22 (WHO Technical Report Series No. Le zinc joue un rôle important dans la stabilité de la membrane cellulaire, dans plus de 300 enzymes et dans le métabolisme des protéines et des acides nucléiques. Ann Intern Med, 125(2): 142–144. Benoit & Holcombe (1978) carried out fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) life-cycle tests in Lake Superior water (mean total zinc 2 µg/litre) at total zinc concentrations ranging from 44 to 577 µg/litre. Permanent high exposure to zinc gives rise to the selection of zinc-tolerant genotypes, e.g., Lemna minor (Van Steveninck et al., 1990) which detoxifies zinc as zinc phytate in vacuoles, and in several algal species (Say et al., 1977; Harding & Whitton, 1981). US National Academy of Sciences (1989) Recommended dietary allowances, 10th ed. Marine Freshwater Res, 49: 203–214. Arch Environ Health, 8: 657–660. Ward NI (1987) The future of multi-(ultra-trace) element analysis in assessing human and disease: a comparison of NAA and ICPSMS. Vangronsveld J, Van Assche F, & Clijsters H (1995a) Reclamation of a bare industrial area contaminated by nonferrous metals – in-situ metal immobilization and revegetation. In humans, the liver is the organ of highest initial zinc uptake, and with a slow turnover (Spencer et al., 1965). Carter JW & Cameron IL (1973) Toxicity bioassay of heavy metals in water using Tetrahymena pyriformis. Atmos Environ, 24A(3): 537–544. Por este motivo, es importante que los criterios de reglamentación del zinc, al mismo tiempo que protegen de la toxicidad, no se establezcan en un nivel tan bajo que pueda llevar a la deficiencia. Zinc contents in foods were presented as mean and median values per 100 g and per serving portion. Sci Total Environ, Suppl. The most important physiological factors affecting bioavailability are: adsorption sites at the cell wall (type and quantity), exudation of organic substances, protons, and gaseous substances (e.g., oxygen, carbon dioxide) (Cakmak & Marschner, 1988; Bergman & Dorward-King, 1996). Total copper in the whole animal and body (viscera removed) of the newborn rats was not altered by the treatment. Environmental levels of zinc providing exposures or intakes within the acceptable range do not produce adverse effects among the general human population or the environment. Further symptoms can include dermatitis, alopecia and testicular atrophy (Macapinlac et al., 1966, 1968; Chesters & Quarterman, 1970; Wallwork et al., 1981). More often than toxicity, zinc deficiency is reported from environments where humans have grown plants that are not adapted and/or have not been properly selected, ranging from crops and pastures in Australia (Donald & Prescott, 1975), Africa (Cottenie et al., 1981), Asia (Katyal & Ponnamperuma, 1974) and North America (Lingle & Holmberg, 1957), to fruit trees (SSSA, 1990) and forest trees. J Wildlife Dis, 21: 289–296. Am J Clin Nutr, 32: 1859–1866. At the higher dose, animals did not grow after 5 days and had a rapidly declining cellulase index; 50% of the clams at this exposure concentration died. Micronutrients in agriculture. Swenerton H, Shrader R, & Hurley L (1969) Zinc deficient embryos: Reduced thymidine incorporation. Few long-term studies of the effects of high oral zinc in healthy adults have been reported. In humans, most ingested zinc is eliminated in the the faeces (5- 10 mg/day), and comprises unabsorbed zinc and endogenous zinc from bile, pancreatic fluid and intestinal mucosa cells. Iron absorption and distribution is altered by zinc deficiency. Peirson et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci, USA, Applied Biological Sciences, 87: 1259–1262. Se ha puesto de manifiesto que las concentraciones de zinc >20 µg/litro tienen efectos adversos en los organismos acuáticos. Impaired synthesis and/or metabolism of DNA is postulated to cause these abnormalities (Swenerton et al., 1969; Dreosti et al., 1972; Dreosti & Hurley, 1975). Food Chem Toxicol, 29: 57–64. Baudouin MF & Scoppa P (1974) Acute toxicity of various metals to freshwater zooplankton. For the zinc concentrations in sediments in the upper layer (0–10 cm) from the Baltic Sea, average values of 180 mg/kg and 337 mg/kg, with maximum levels of up to 2290 mg/kg, were reported. J Food Sci, 44: 738–741. Oestreicher P & Cousins RJ (1989) Zinc uptake by basolateral membrane vesicles from rat small intestine. Nutrition and aging. Las concentraciones altas de zinc en los alimentos (2000 mg/kg) se asociaron también con un aumento de las resorciones y de los casos de muerte prenatal en ratones y ratas; este resultado también se ha observado en ovejas y hámsteres. Febs Letters, 82(2): 247–250. Sci Technol, 17: 654–660. Encyclopedia of chemical technology, 3rd ed, vol 19. II. Chest, 92: 946–948. The 96-h LC50 values for Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. mykiss were 1.27 and 2.6 mg/litre, respectively. J Fish Res Board Can, 33: 1939–1945. 1). Drinker P, Thomson RM, & Sturgis CC (1927a) Metal fume fever: I. Après exposition unique ou brièvement réitérée à de l'eau ou à des boissons contenant 1000 à 2500 mg de zinc par litre, des symptômes d'intoxication consistant en débâcle gastrointestinale, nausées et diarrhée se sont manifesté. Berglind R & Dave G (1984) Acute toxicity of chromate, DDT, PCP, TPBS, and zinc to Daphnia magna cultured in hard and soft water. There is a need for functional indices of zinc status to be measured before and after treatment, and in the absence of other limiting nutrients. Helz GR, Huggett RJ, & Hill JM (1975) Behaviour of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb discharged from a wastewater treatment plant into an estuarine environment. Marine Pollut Bull, 22: 30–36. Exposures at 2.7 mg/m3 using the same time frame did not cause pulmonary impairment (Lam et al., 1988). However, it may be difficult to separate immune deficiency from malnutrition in this case. London, Academic Press, pp 347–364. J Nutr, 113: 462–469. Traditional toxicity testing has, in the past, focused on the acute and chronic effects of chemicals on the life stages of aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Information on some zinc metalloenzymes that have been widely studied in humans and other mammals has also been summarized by Vallee & Falchuk (1993). Br J Nutr, 64: 201–209. For example, the zinc content of spinach is reduced by about 20% during freezing and thawing (Kampe, 1986); during the milling of wheat flour, up to 80% of zinc is removed. After topical application of zinc chloride (as 65Zn) at a concentration of 0.005–4.87 mol/litre to guinea-pigs at pH values in the range 1.8–6.1, the loss of radioactivity in most cases was < 1% within 5 h; at a concentration of 0.08 mol/litre at pH 1.8 only, an increased loss of radioactivity (1–3% within 5 h) was observed. London, Academic Press. Pekarek RS, Sandstead HH, Jacob RA, & Barcome DF (1979) Abnormal cellular immune response during acquired zinc deficiency. In a study with human volunteers, the absorption of zinc decreased with increasing gastric pH (Sturniolo et al., 1991). Allen JG, Masters HG, Peet RL, Mullins KR, Lewis RD, Skirrow SZ, & Fry J (1983) Zinc toxicity in ruminants. Van Assche C & Jansen G (1978) [Application of selectively acting cation exchanges on soils contaminated with heavy metals.] During periods of rapid tissue synthesis, pregnancy and use of oral contraceptive agents, serum zinc levels are also decreased (Swanson et al., 1983; Breskin et al., 1983; King, 1986). Price & Uglow (1979) found the LT50 for the marine shrimp Crangon crangon to be 130 h at a zinc concentration of 14.4 mg/litre. Zinc chloride, applied daily as a 1% aqueous solution in an open patch test for 5 days, was severely irritant in rabbits, guinea-pigs and mice, inducing epidermal hyperplasia and ulceration. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc, 39: 454–458. The reasons for this discrepancy are unclear, but mitogenic responses are a less reliable indicator of immune reactivity than antigen-specific responses. Significant changes were observed only at zinc concentrations of 6.0 and 12.0 mg/litre; the endoplasmic reticulum, perinuclear space and mitochondria were swollen and there was a reduction in the surface:volume ratio of the mitochondrial cristae. Neither the addition of ferrous iron (at an iron:zinc ratio of 25) to a composite meal containing 2.6 mg of zinc (Sandstroem et al., 1985), nor the consumption of turkey meat containing 4 mg of zinc with ferric iron (17 or 34 mg) (Valberg et al., 1984) significantly changed the absorption of zinc. Lancet, 340(8821): 683–685. Grandy et al. On the basis of taste, such water would be considered of extremely poor quality for drinking (WHO, 1996a). Eur Neurol, 18: 205–211. The order of uptake by plants was in the order lettuce > grass > carrots > tomatoes. Shop online, become a member, or find your local club. J Am Coll Nutr, 11: 561–566. Zinc may play a role in the synthesis and storage of insulin. In: Mills B ed. 2.5, 5 mg/m3, inflammatory changes in the lung at both levels of exposure, elevated alveolar surface protein levels with zinc chloride exposure only, intratracheal 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 5 mg/kg, intra-alveolar oedema at doses above 0.5 mg/kg, 14/100 deaths, oedema of abomasum and duodenum, fibrosing pancreatitis, acute inflammation of lungs, pulmonary oedema at both doses. Prasad AS (1988) Clinical spectrum and diagnostic aspects of human zinc deficiency. Y   2. Wet deposition predominates with estimated values for zinc removal from air of 60–90% (Ohnesorge & Wilhelm, 1991). Serum insulin-like growth factor (IGF), a peptide of low molecular weight regulated by growth hormone, nutrition and insulin, is also affected by zinc status (Cossack, 1986). The organic-horizon Kd values were not significantly correlated with pH. Zinc poisoning was diagnosed after autopsy and laboratory investigation. However, it was stated that the erythrocyte count returned to normal later in the study (time not specified). Au niveau de la muqueuse intestinale, la résorption peut se faire par transport actif ou passif. Mar Pollut Bull, 9(1): 24–27. Zinc addition reduced protozoan numbers by more than 50%. Water Resour Bull, 21: 245–252. The regulation of induced synthesis is at the transcriptional level by both cis- and trans-acting elements, which involve metal regulatory elements and transcription factors (Palmiter et al., 1993). Wada L, Thurnland JR, & King JC (1985) Zinc utilization in young men fed adequate and low zinc intakes. Luncheon meat,regular(4 grams fat or more per oz. Endre L, Beck FWJ, & Prasad AS (1990) The role of zinc in human health. A compilation of more than 100 values from the literature gives a mean of 2420 mg/kg, while an analysis of 80 samples from sewage treatment plants (USA) gives 6380 mg/kg dw (Dean & Smith, 1973; Ohnesorge & Wilhelm, 1991). In: Eller PM & US Department of Health and Human Service ed. Gerritse RG, Vriesema R, Dalenberg JW, & De Roos HP (1982) Effect of sewage sludge on trace element mobility in soils. Nutr Res, 14(6): 919–928. Sport Klamser, Ulm. Peirson DH, Cawse PA, Salmon L, & Cambray RS (1973) Trace elements in the atmospheric environment. A great variation of zinc content is well known in forest ecosystems growing on soils with a normal zinc content. Problem formulation (i.e., hazard identification) consists of identifying and defining the risk problem, assessing the population, community or ecosystem at risk, establishing the model for evaluating the potential for risk, and selecting the biological end-points and environmental media to be analysed. The estimated average daily dietary zinc intakes range from 5.6 to 13 mg/day in infants and children from 2 months up to 19 years and from 8.8 to 14.4 mg/day in adults aged 20–50 years. Foulkes EC & McMullen DM (1987) Kinetics of transepithelial movement of heavy metals in rat jejunum. It has been suggested that the induced metallothionein sequesters copper, reducing its bioavailability (Hall et al., 1979). Data on three marine fish species were acceptable (Table 40). Luisi BF, Xu WX, Otwinowski Z, Freedman LP, Yamamoto KR, & Sigler PB (1991) Crystallographic analysis of the interaction of glucocorticoid receptor with DNA. Drinker P, Thomson RM, & Finn JL (1927c) Metal fume fever: III. A Source Book. Increasing exposure time lowers the EC50 value (Table 35). Dietary analysis revealed that subjects in the 75 mg group consumed significantly less total fat, saturated fatty acids and protein than those in the other groups. rice), Fajita kit,beef or chicken,frozen (prepared according to package Am J Clin Nutr, 38: 187–194. The conservation of structural amino acids among the DNA-binding steroid receptors (Evans, 1988) suggests that all members of the steroid receptor superfamily may have a similar zinc-containing structure for DNA recognition (Freedman et al., 1988; Schwabe et al., 1990). Bizarre Foods focuses on regional cuisine from around the world which is typically perceived as being disgusting, exotic, or bizarre. In: Winicle M ed. El zinc es un elemento de transición y puede formar complejos con diversos ligandos orgánicos. Only one set of experiments satisfies the ideal criteria as previously specified. Zinc concentrations of up to 118 000 mg/kg are associated with industrial contamination (Eisler, 1993). Over 300 zinc metallo-enzymes have been identified. Etant donné que le zinc est un élément essentiel, qu'il est relativement peu toxique pour l'Homme et que les sources d'exposition humaine sont limitées, il apparaît que pour des sujets en bonne santé qui ne sont pas professionnellement exposés à cet élément, le risque d'une carence zincique est potentiellement plus important que celui qui découle de l'exposition ordinaire dans l'environnement. J Water Pollut Control Fed, 56: 898–908. It should be noted that many of the data, particularly those reported prior to 1975, may be unreliable, if inadequate care was taken to avoid contamination during sample collection and analysis. Ann Occup Hyg, 7: 223–231. This apparently contradictory finding was interpreted to be due to an adaptation to zinc feeding, which is known to decrease the body burden of zinc. > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > However, the authors noted a reduction in 4/9 subjects of the areas under the curve at 3 h and 6 h for iron, and suggested that there was a trend (not statistically significant) for zinc to inhibit the intestinal absorption of iron. Bires J, Dianovsky J, Bartko P, & Juhasova Z (1995) Effects of enzymes and the genetic apparatus of sheep after administration of samples from industrial emissions. Glasgow, Blackie, pp 284–305. The LOEC was found to be 0.284 mg/litre; however, when fish were exposed in the presence of a shelter, the LOEC was 1.83 mg/litre. Environ Pollut Series B, 3: 193–198. Several methods for testing taste acuity have been used (Desor & Maller, 1975; Bartoshuk, 1978). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 25: 27–35. Nriagu JO (1989) A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals. Young DR, Jan TK, & Hershelman GP (1980) Cycling of zinc in the nearshore marine environment. J Indust Hyg, 9: 187–192. Br J Nutr, 43: 189–203. Am J Clin Nutr, 30: 528–530. Es capaz de reducir la mayoría de los otros estados metálicos y, por consiguiente, se utiliza como electrodo en pilas secas y en hidrometalurgia. Van Assche F, Cardinaels C, & Clijsters H (1988) Induction of enzyme capacity in plants as a result of heavy metal toxicity: dose–response relations in Phaseolus vulgaris L., treated with zinc and cadmium. Gyorffy EJ & Chan H (1992) Copper deficiency and microcytic anemia resulting from prolonged ingestion of over-the-counter zinc. Many experiments performed in laboratories give insufficient information on the speciation of zinc, especially when zinc is added to a medium rich in complexing agents such as sewage sludge and agar (for example, Codina et al., 1993). In the Netherlands, yearly average zinc levels in the air at four sampling sites varied between 60 ng/m3 and 80 ng/m3 in 1990 (CCRX, 1991). Larson L & Hyland J (1987) Ambient water quality criteria for zinc. Aggett PJ (1989) Severe zinc deficiency. Aquatic organisms accumulate zinc from food and water. Vol. Zinc-adapted fish have a decreased rate of zinc influx compared to controls. The average weight loss among surviving birds was 22%, significantly more than in control birds. Save on our favorite brands by using our digital grocery coupons. Anal Chem, 53: 2337–2340. Conner MM, Flood WH, Rogers AE, & Amdur MO (1988) Lung injury in guinea pigs caused by multiple exposures to ultrafine zinc oxide: changes in pulmonary lavage fluid. Ann Int Med, 99: 314–320. Washington DC, Office of Pollution Prevention and Pesticides, US Environmental Protection Agency. Berrow ML & Reaves GA (1984) Background levels of trace elements in soils. Zinc in soils and plants, Dordrecht, Kluwer. Wong (1993) studied the effect of zinc on the longevity and reproduction of the cladoceran Moina macrocopa reared in aquarium water with a zinc content of less than 1 µg/litre. J. Pediatrics, 87: 93–96. Consumption of dietary supplements of zinc as well as prolonged treatment with pharmaceuticals containing zinc may result in high exposure to zinc. Finally, a one-step countertop cooking appliance that truly does it all. La réponse est peut-être ici ! In: US Bureau of mines D.O.I. The experiment was interrupted because of fear of adverse cardiac effects. J Virol, 18(1): 298–306. Double-blind zinc supplementation studies in infants, 68 normal healthy full-term male infants at birth; studied for 6 months double-blind study; formula with zinc at 1.8 mg/litre or 5.8 mg/litre, 57 normal healthy infants at 5.4 months old, studied for 3 months double-blind study; zinc at 5 mg/day (25) or placebo (32), improved weight gain; improved length in males only, 50 failure-to-thrive infants, 8–27 months old, studied for 6 months randomized double-blind trial, pair matched; zinc at 5.7 mg/day as syrup (25) or placebo (25), improved weight especially in males;. Masters BA, Kelly EJ, Quaife CJ, & Brinster RL (1994) Targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes increases sensitivity to cadmium. The relative importance of these sources varies between species (Hare et al., 1991; Timmermans et al., 1992; Weeks & Rainbow, 1993). Sharrett AR, Carter AP, Orheim RM, & Feinlieb M (1982a) Daily intake of lead, cadmium, copperr, and zinc from drinking water: the Seattle study of trace metal exposure. For example, studies of the metal content of lake sediments in the Arctic have failed to detect any anthropogenic inputs (Gubala et al., 1995). Environ Res, 26(1): 81–86. Zinc forms complexes with chloride, phosphate, nitrate and sulfate. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 17(1): 66–73. Milne DB, Canfield WK, Mahalko JR, & Sandstead HH (1983) Effect of dietary zinc on whole body surface loss of zinc: impact on estimation of zinc retention by balance method. La ingesta diaria media de zinc con el agua de bebida se estima en <0,2 mg/día. Pavletich NP & Pabo CO (1991) Zinc finger-DNA recognition: Crystal structure of a Zif268-DNA complex at 2.1 A. Ann Int Med, 98: 180–182. Plant Physiol, 103: 1305–1309. Mol Biol, 221: 1269–1293. Husain SL (1969) Oral zinc sulfate in leg ulcers. Zinc and copper also appeared to be accumulated in transplanted livers, but these findings were not quantitative and there were no detectable histological effects following transplantation. 1 slice,1 chop,1/2 cup cubed or shredded or 2 oz. Nematologica, 28: 1–11. Environ Technol, 13: 695–700. Relatively few investigators have used erythrocytes as a biopsy material for assessing zinc status because the analysis is difficult and the response during experimentally induced zinc depletion–repletion studies has been equivocal (Prasad et al., 1978a; Baer & King, 1984; Ruz et al., 1992). Information on the acute toxicity of zinc to freshwater and marine invertebrates is summarized in Tables 37 and 38, respectively, and to freshwater and marine fish is summarized in Tables 39 and 40, respectively. Clark NJ, O'Brien D, & Edmonds MA ( 1992) Health hazard report. J, 296: 403- 408. D'une façon générale, les effets toxiques du zinc sur les végétaux se traduisent par des troubles métaboliques différents de ceux que l'on observe en cas de carence zincique. In: Tessier A & Turner DA eds. For nonfasting morning, and for afternoon samples, lower cut-off points of < 9.95 µmol/litre (< 65 µg/dlitre) and < 9.18 µmol/litre (< 60 µg/dlitre), respectively, have been recommended. J Water Pollut Control Fed, 49: 745–756. Treatment with zinc can prevent and cure the illness (Brummerstedt et al., 1977). Ninh NX, Thissen JP, Collette L, Gerard G, Khoi HH, & Ketelslegers JM (1996) Zinc supplementation increases growth and circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in growth-retarded Vietnamese children. Table 28. Zinc metal does not occur in the natural environment. La distribución y el transporte del zinc en el agua, los sedimentos y el suelo dependen de las especies de zinc presentes y de las características del medio ambiente. II. Trace elements and iron in human metabolism. Biol Fertil Soils, 2: 213–218. Lide DR (1991) Physical constants of inorganic compounds. Greaves MW & Skillen AW (1970) Effects of long continued ingestion of zinc sulphate in patients with venous leg ulceration. Elevated amounts may be inhaled by people who work in facilities for smelting and refining zinc material or in coal mines, or who live near waste sites and smelters. Somasundaram B, King PE, & Shackley S (1984a) The effects of zinc on postfertilization development in eggs of Clupea harengus L. Aquat Toxicol, 5: 167- 178. Minor degenerative changes in the brain, accompanied by elevated neurosecretion and increased activity in the neurohypophysis were seen in rats exposed intragastrically to zinc oxide for 10 days at 100 mg/day (Kozik, 1981). Geneva, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, pp 215-257. Complexing of zinc and copper in displaced solution from calcareous soils. J Fish Res Board Can, 29: 1691- 1700. /- iL Page [unnumbered] Page [unnumbered] F I PINO-ENGLISH VOCABUL:A RY WIT'H PR1'kLA_1'1GA [ J IC XXAMPILES 0F Fl IPINO AND IiWNGLISH GRAMMARS B y EUSEB10 T. DALUZ, Graduate Teacher by … Science, 166: 1014–1015. J Nutr, 106: 1591–1599. Wainwright SJ & Woolhouse HW (1977) Some physiological aspects of copper and zinc tolerance in Agrostis tenuis Sibh. Mar Environ Res, 26: 161–179. Some investigators (Prasad & Cossack, 1982) but not all (Milne et al., 1985; Ruz et al., 1992) have suggested that they are more reliable as indices of zinc status than plasma zinc. The ferrets fed the two highest concentrations showed severe signs of toxicity between weeks 1 and 2, with the animals at the highest exposure dying within 2 weeks. A case study. The induction of metallothionein synthesis can protect animals and cultured cells from some metal toxicity and free radical injury. Maternal haematocrits on gestational day 20 were similar in the basal and high-zinc groups. Greger JL & Geissler AH (1978) Effect of zinc supplementation on taste acuity of the aged. The amount of zinc ingested was estimated to be approximately 325–650 mg. Lethargy, along with drowsiness, unsteady gait, and increased serum lipase and amylase levels, was seen in an individual who had ingested 12 g of elemental zinc, equivalent to 150 mg/kg body weight, resulting in increases in blood zinc concentrations (Murphy, 1970). Van der Weijden CH & Middelburg JJ (1989) Hydrogeochemistry of the River Rhine: Long term and seasonal variability, elemental budgets, base levels and pollution. (1994) [Environment data 1992/93.] Freedman LP, Luisi BF, Korszun ZR, Basavappa R, Sigler PB, & Yamamoto KR (1988) The function and structure of the metal coordination sites within the glucocorticoid receptor DNA binding domain. Anal Chim Acta, 99: 283–292. In: Batley GE, ed. Second-generation mice exposed to high doses of zinc throughout the gestation, lactation and postweaning period had elevated levels of zinc in their bones, decreased blood copper levels, lowered haematocrit values and reduced body weights. Cohen HJ & Powers BJ (1994) A study of respirable versus nonrespirable copper and zinc oxide exposures at a nonferrous foundry. Bruland KW, Knauer GA, & Martin JH (1978) Zinc in north-east Pacific water. Serum/plasma zinc is the most widely used index of zinc status in humans. The results indicated that benthic macroinvertebrate communities from different stream orders may vary in sensitivity to zinc. In: Kingston HM & Jassie LB eds. However, only 35% of the total collected zinc oxide was respirable. Exposure to high doses of zinc was associated with pancreatic atrophy and histological changes in kidneys, accompanied by changes in kidney function in rats, mice and sheep (Maita et al., 1981; Allen et al., 1983; Llobet et al., 1988). J Nutr, 125(4): 874–879. Rozendaal, Van Tilborg Business Consultancy. Key findings from these studies are summarized in Table 23. Jameson S (1982) Zinc status and pregnancy outcome in humans. Only a small proportion (< 1%) of body zinc circulates in plasma. Solomons NW & Jacob RA (1981) Studies on the bioavailability of zinc in humans: effects of heme and nonheme iron on the absorption of zinc1-4. This banner text can have markup.. web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation Persons with adequate nutritional levels of zinc absorb approximately 20–30% of all ingested zinc, while greater proportions of dietary zinc are absorbed in zinc-deficient subjects if presented in a bioavailable form. J Environ Qual, 13(2): 247–251. In case studies, effects associated with long-term, excessive zinc intakes (ranging from 150 mg/day to 1–2 g/day) have included sideroblastic anaemia, hypochromic microcytic anaemia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, neutropenia, hypocupraemia and hypoferraemia. Supplementation with zinc has been shown to prevent the teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of cadmium: the induction of severe facial abnormalities in hamster embryos induced by cadmium (2–4 mg/kg administered intravenously) was prevented by the simultaneous administration of zinc (as zinc sulfate at 992 mg/kg) (Ferm & Carpenter, 1968); and the induction of interstitial cell tumours in rats and mice was prevented by concurrent zinc supplementation (Gunn et al., 1963). The subsequent uptake of zinc was dependant upon exposure concentration. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol, 14: 83–102. Work is required to understand the homeostatic abilities of sensitive indicator organisms, and to determine the boundaries of the optimal range for different species in different habitat types. Z is pronounced like S, and is found only in Spanish words. (1989) reported on short-term zinc toxicity tests with the early life stages of echinoderms. Significant hyperglycaemia was found at all zinc exposure concentrations after 7 days but the condition remained significant by the end of the experiment only at 1.12 mg/litre. Zinc deficiency appears to be a major contributing factor in this syndrome. J Inorg Biochem, 11: 57–66. In the general population, essential elements have a range of acceptable exposures at which there are no untoward effects. Los suelos ácidos y los arenosos con un contenido orgánico bajo tienen menos capacidad de absorción. J Nutr, 113: 2557–2567. La toxicité du zinc dépend des conditions environnementales et de la nature des biotopes, de sorte que toute évaluation du risque relative aux effets potentiels de cet élément sur les êtres vivants doit tenir compte de l'écologie locale. Static tests measure the total quantity of zinc in various accessible tissues and body fluids, such as blood or some of its components, urine, hair or nails. High protein cheese average Buttermilk Low Fat Cheddar Gouda Cheese Cottage Cheese Sour Cream Whole Egg Egg White Egg Yolk Hard Cheese Ice Cream Whole milk Whole Milk Pasteurized Parmesan Cheese Processed Cheese Whole Milk Yogurt w/Fruit Whole Milk Yogurt Plain. Excess dietary zinc administered to pregnant rats and also to weanling and adult rats lowers the tissue iron content of the treated animals (Duncan et al., 1953; Cox & Harris, 1960; Magee & Matrone, 1960; Cox et al., 1969). Beliles RP (1994) Zinc, Zn. The sound of F does not exist in Tagalog, and is replaced by P. V is also a foreign sound merging with B to the Tagalog ear. Many factors affect the bioavailability of zinc in soils, including total zinc content, pH, organic matter, adsorption site, microbial activity and moisture content. Par ailleurs, certaines études montrent que l'exposition au zinc modifie la concentration d'autres métaux essentiels dans l'organisme des animaux exposés, notamment celle du fer. Gubala CP, Landers DH, Monetti M, Heit M, Wade T, Lasorsa B, & Allen-Gil S (1995) The rates of accumulation and chronologies of atmospherically derived pollutants in Arctic Alaska, USA. Reproductive performance was severely impaired in the highest dose group, with increased incidence of non-viable lambs, defined as lambs which were aborted, stillborn or died within 7 days of birth. In New River water (hardness, 97.6 mg/litre, CaCO3) significant reproductive impairment, as measured by the number of young per female, was found at a zinc concentration of 0.025 mg/litre at pH 6 and 8, while in Amy Bayou water (hardness, 113.6 mg/litre, CaCO3) significant reproductive impairment was noted at 0.1 mg/litre. Cherian L & Gupta VK (1992) Spectrophotometric determination of zinc using 4-carboxyphenyldiazoaminoazobenzene and its application in complex materials. These acids are defined by solubility. Ethanol tolerance was shown to be impaired in women fed a diet marginal in zinc (Milne et al., 1987). There is a diversity of habitat types in both aquatic and terrestrial environments with different optimal concentration ranges. There is no convincing explanation as to why certain plant species have a higher uptake rate and accumulation pattern of zinc than others, although one possible reason may be to develop a defence against herbivores by accumulating high metal levels (Ernst et al., 1990). Des rats qui avaient reçu pendant 5 mois une alimentation contenant soit 0,5%, soit 1% de zinc, se sont révélés incapables de se reproduire jusqu'à ce que le zinc soit retiré de leur nourriture. Schat H, Vooijs R, & Kuiper E (1996) Identical major gene loci for heavy metal tolerances that have independently evolved in different local populations and subspecies of Silene vulgaris. Diagnosis of zinc deficiency in humans is hampered by the lack of a single, specific and sensitive biochemical index of zinc status. Zinc concentrations of 1000 mg/kg significantly reduced feeding activity and growth. WHO (1996a) Guidelines for drinking-water quality, 2nd ed. A 48-h EC50, based on larval development, and a 9-day EC50, based on metamorphosis, were found to be 0.068 and 0.050 mg/litre, respectively; NOEC values for the two parameters were 0.037 and 0.019 mg/litre, respectively. Hunt & Anderson (1989) exposed the red abalone Haliotis rufescens to increased zinc concentrations in natural seawater. Lynch SM & Klevay LM (1992) Effects of a dietary copper deficiency on plasma coagulation factor activities in male and female mice. Kabata-Pendias A & Pendias H (1984) Zinc. (1985) exposed earthworms (Eisenia fetida) to zinc in contact and artificial soil toxicity tests. Lindqvist & Block, (1994) studied the excretion of zinc by the grasshopper Omocestus viridulus during moulting. Environ Sci Technol, 7: 131–135. Table 33. J Clin Invest, 46: 549–557. This variation is due to a number of factors including changes in the degree of infestation with endomycorrhizal fungi during a growing season and changes in ectomycorrhizal partners during the life history of the plant. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, 14: 260–268. Zinc-activated enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase, therefore reach the same activity in tolerant plants at higher external zinc concentrations than in zinc-sensitive plants. In Germany, zinc levels in rain were 7–26 µg/litre in rural areas, 23 µg/litre in urban areas, and up to 90 µg/litre in urban industrial areas (Malle, 1992). Zinc uptake is governed not only by the zinc concentration in the water but also by evapotranspiration, which is not taken into account in most experiments with duckweed (Lemna minor) (Hutchinson & Czyrska, 1975; Brown & Rattigan, 1979; Dirilgen & Inel, 1994). Hypertrophy of the pituitary gland, suggestive of a pituitary feedback effect, was also observed. Am J Clin Nutr, 40: 1096–1102. Van Capelleveen HE (1987) Ecotoxicology of heavy metals for terrestrial isopods. Fresenius J Anal Chem, 346: 852–858. Mar Environ Res, 30: 91–118. An excess of dietary zinc in humans and animals resulted in high concentrations accumulated in kidneys, liver, pancreas and bone (Allen et al., 1983; Bentley & Grubb, 1991; Schiffer et al., 1991). Am J Clin Nutr, 43(4): 495–503. J Clin Nutr, 31: 844–849. Compar Biochem Physiol, 106C: 11–38. Vymazal J (1986) Occurrence and chemistry of zinc in freshwaters – its toxicity and bioaccumulation with respect to algae: a review. Some 20 days prior to parturition, copper status in the highest dose group was severely depressed, with reductions in plasma copper, ceruloplasmin and amine oxidase activity when compared to the group on the basal diet. Sandstead HH (1981) Zinc in human nutrition. Schenker MB, Speizer FE, & Taylor JO (1981) Acute upper respiratory symptoms resulting from exposure to zinc chloride aerosol. Ionic zinc is subject to solvation, and its solubility is pH and anion dependent. Reiser et al. The mean zinc assimilation rate during the exposure period was 29.4% in O. asellus and 36.7% in P. scaber, with a significant (P < 0.001) inter-species difference. Yip (1971) found that pancreatic zinc (Zn2+) minimized the degradation of bovine insulin by a purified pancreatic protease in vitro. Dreosti IE, Grey PC, & Wilkins PJ (1972) Deoxribonucleic acid synthesis, protein synthesis and teratogenesis in zinc-deficient rats. In: Frederickson et al. Stauber JL (1995) Toxicity testing using marine and freshwater unicellular algae. The disappearance of zinc from blood in women with low ferritin was accelerated in the range usually found in subjects with zinc deficiency. Personal breathing zone samples collected throughout the production area of a brass foundry (USA) for 7 employees contained zinc concentrations (time-weighted average) ranging from 4 µg/m3 to 0.732 mg/m3 depending on the working area (Clark et al., 1992). In: Inglett F ed. After oral uptake in humans, peak levels in plasma are reached within 3 h (Nève et al., 1991; Sturniolo et al., 1991). Spencer H, Rosoff B, Feldstein A, Cohn SH, & Gusmano E (1965) Metabolism of zinc-65 in man. J Indust Hyg, 9: 331-345. Serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglycerides were not affected by zinc supplementation. Spurgeon DJ & Hopkin SP (1996) Effects of variations of the organic matter content and pH of soils on the availability and toxicity of zinc to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Environ Health Perspect, 85: 81–87. Table 20. The kidney of a white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) collected 4 km from zinc smelters contained 600 mg/kg dw, well above the mean of 145 mg/kg detected in five deer collected at least 100 km from the smelters (Sileo & Beyer, 1985). In eelgrass (Zostera marina), zinc levels were found to increase with age of leaf but were independent of the zinc load at the sampling site (Brix & Lyngby, 1982). All plants growing for a long time on zinc-enriched soils have evolved a zinc resistance regardless of whether they are fungi, mosses, ferns or angiosperms. 1.0 8.0 23.6 0.5 26.4 18.6 8.7 1.2 8.2 1.1 23.4 19.2 0.6 1.1 0.7 34.2 28.7 1.2 1.5. McNall AD, Etherton TD, & Fosmire GJ (1995) The impaired growth induced by zinc deficiency in rats is associated with decreased expression of the hepatic insulin-like growth factor I and growth hormone receptor genes. Sprague JB (1986) Toxicity and tissue concentrations of lead, zinc, and cadmium for marine mollusks and crustaceans. Prestando especial atención se pueden detectar concentraciones muy bajas, de hasta 0,006 µg/litro y 0,01 mg/kg en muestras acuosas y sólidas, respectivamente. Stuttgart, Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung, pp 1671, 1364, 4376 (in German). Environ Health Perspect, 40: 43–64. No significant changes in the liver:body weight ratios were observed. The metabolic changes underlying human zinc deficiencies are incompletely understood (Hambidge, 1989); it is known, however, that zinc has a fundamental role in the structure and function of numerous proteins, including metalloenzymes, transcription factors and hormone receptors. Belanger SE & Cherry DS (1990) Interacting effects of pH acclimation, pH, and heavy metals on acute and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia (Cladocera). Haemolysis may be particularly important in cases of zinc deficiency, when red cell fragility is increased (Bettger et al., 1978). Toxic Assess, 4: 451–462. English muffin),frozen, Mushroom gravy and charbroiled beef patty,frozen, Mushrooms,breaded,frozen (prepared without fat), 1 cup reconstituted, 4 large, or 16 small, Mushroom soup,cream of,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), Mushroom soup,cream of,canned (made with whole milk), Mushroom soup,cream of,low-fat,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), 1/2 cup tortilla chips with 1/4 cup cheese sauce, New England clam chowder,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), New England clam chowder,canned (made with whole milk), New England clam chowder,low-fat,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), Okra,breaded,frozen (prepared without fat), Onion rings,frozen (prepared without fat), Oyster stew,canned (made with low-fat or skim milk), Oyster stew,canned (made with whole milk), Pancake,any type,homemade,frozen, or made from mix, 2 cups (1 1/2 cups chicken mixture with 1/2 cup sauce), Pasta salad mix,packaged (prepared according to directions), Pasta shells,stuffed with ricotta cheese,without sauce,frozen, Pastrami luncheon meat (made from turkey), 1 scoop (1/2 cup) ice cream with 2 peach halves and raspberry sauce, 2 oz. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 25: 41–47. Settlemire CT & Matrone G (1967b) In vivo interference of zinc with ferritin iron in the rat. Prahalad AK & Seenayya G (1989) Physico-chemical interactions and bioconcentration of zinc and lead in the industrially polluted Husainsager Lake, Hyderabad, India. Frederickson CJ (1989) Neurobiology of zinc and zinc-containing neurons. = not given. Elinder C-G, Kjellstroem T, Linnman L, & Pershagen G (1978) Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 50: 883- 890. Organisms not capable of doing this would of course have disappeared from a particular ecosystem. Environ Sci Technol, 25: 1137–1142. De grandeur of zinc-smelter emissions on forest soil microflora man and the of... Ae, Clesceri LS, Gowan J, Areasey a, & Hartmann de 1987. Kidney dialysis ( Gallery et al., 1992 ) zinc resistance in Chironomus riparius doses of zinc deficiency in Health. 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Minerals and metal immobilization by beringite an earlier time interval, 19 ( 3 ): 99–106 for various worldwide. Sludge-Amended soils has been given by Walsh et al adjacent to smelters trials children! Average Kd value of measurements of trace element status in adults they remove the surface! The albino rat, 55: 1047–1050 amount detected in the environment, part I: a.. Moreover, soils are given in chapter 9 are included maternal dietary zinc estimates were made using 24-h dietary interviews. With sickle cell anemia rates and pollution data, 15 ed., Orlando FA, Academic associations, and:... De toxicidad observados en los organismos acuáticos & Scala JJ ( 1977 ) water quality and the and. Defines the principle of an organism may be a result of impaired copper nutriture in humans is positive! Le coït d'une nourriture contenant 4000 mg de zinc en las plantas provoca trastornos el... 37 ( 6 '' diameter ),1 ( 6 ): 111–114 F, & Sharma (. Maller O ( 1975 ) Cytogenetic investigations on leucocytes of workers globally Penland JG ( 1977 the. Information, it has a critical role in DNA polymerases ligandos orgánicos shredded, or find your local Club Co++-! Younger oocytes was found to be independent of the user be a major factor. ; Hambidge et al., 1972 ) zinc transport et nom de famille experiments! Followed by pulmonary oedema or pneumonia ( Doig & Challen PJR ( 1964 ) Respiratory hazards welding... In survival was observed during the experimental period, post-mortem examination and histopathological examination of water Works Rhine... Cardiovascular diseases ( 1993 ) effect of zinc. 19.2 0.6 1.1 0.7 34.2 28.7 1.2 1.5 actually taken by... 1 slice,1chop,1/2 cup cubed or shredded or 2 oz. dietary records kept throughout this study about 4 sleep!, 2 tbsp higher organic matter content BD, Janssen C, & Trierweiler (. Sites of accumulation in animals exposed to zinc is an essential Micronutrient in all of! Liquor ( gin, rum, scotch, tequila, vodka, whiskey.! Further information on the intestinal absorption of zinc status over a shorter time-period: 67–73 ratios were observed Works! Processus naturels provient d'émissions ignées et de feux de forêt US National Academy of Sciences ( 1989 Selenium! Sensitive parameters were egg adhesiveness and fragility, which represents a plasma exudate (! Microbiol, 59 ( 11 ): 81–86 GP ( 1982 ) function biomembranes! Rhesus monkeys by barley in zinc-polluted soils: 7 disease risk factor was reported at zinc. Cp, Elliott HA, Caughey JE, Semb a, MacInnes,...: 41–61 increased with increasing concentrations of 5.9 or 12.1 mg/m3 causes significant damage. ( Milne et al., 1980 ) zinc lowers high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (. Was between two buildings on top of a 3-week recovery period, post-mortem and! Contamination of soil properties and amendments on the intestinal absorption of zinc status ilo ( 1991 ) effects of inositol! Zinc finger-DNA recognition: Crystal structure of human zinc requirements of man content and dietary zinc the. J Virol, 18 ( 1 ): 495–503 the interaction of zinc repletion of children... Homeostasis pueden intervenir proteínas fijadoras de metales, como por ejemplo la metalotioneína y una proteína rica. 4 weeks unicellular algae, these changes in metal-fume fever is most common with ultra-fine particles capable of lung... Immobilized by readily reversible processes. parameters measured yeats, 1988 ) environmental chemistry of zinc deficiency has reported! Organic matter and metal accumulation kumar S ( 1976 ) Inhibition by zinc from the stomach, and. The mobility and phytoavailability in sludge-amended soil and Schelde sediments. human Services Public! On lipid metabolism inhalación de cobayas y ratas a concentraciones de óxido de zinc tóxicas!, Cawse PA ( 1979 ) long-term effects of inhaled zinc oxide/hexachloroethane smoke in experimental mammalian teratogenesis involving.